Parliamentary bill against mass starvation
ABSTRACT: The text of the parliamentary bill promoted by the Radical Party and introduced by 117 members of Parliament belonging to the Christian Democratic Party, the Socialist Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Liberal Party and the Radical party for urgent and extraordinary interventions aimed at ensuring the survival, in 1984, of at least three million people endangered by hunger.
9TH LEGISLATURE - CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES n. 1433
on the initiative of Representatives
PICCOLI, FORMICA, REGGIANI, ROGNONI, BATTISTUZZI, CICIOMESSERE, FORTUNA, ZAMBERTLETTI, FIORI, MASSARI, INTINI, SCOTTI, PANNELLA, MANCINI GIACOMO, RUFFINI, SEGNI, BELLUCCIO, CABRAS, FELISETTI, MAZZOTTA, RUFFOLO, CIRINO POMICINO, LABRIOLA, CITARISTI, MANCA ENRICO, SPADACCIA, TEMPESTINI, ANDO', VERNOLA, BALZAMO, RUTELLI, SINESIO, AMODEO, CASINI CARLO, AGLIETTA, CRESCO, FONTANA, TIRABOSCHI, MERLONI, FERRANDINI, SULLO, NEGRI GIOVANNI, SCOVACRICCHI, CASINI PIER FERDINANDO, PONTELLO, MELLINI, FINCATO GRIGOLETTO, CASATI, ALBERINI, TEODORI, MEMMI, LA GANGA, FAUSTI, DELL'UNTO, ROCCHI, CRIVELLINI, FIANDROTTI, FERRARI SILVESTRO, SANGUINETI, STREGAGNINI, SALERNO, CACCIA, PIRO, RUSSO FERDINANDO, ALAGNA, CARELLI, LODIGIANI, ABETE, SCAGLIONE, NENNA ANTONIO, ROMANO, NICOTRA, SODANO, MELEGA, CONTU, ZAVETTIERI, SANGALLI, TRAPPOLI, NAPOLI, CURCI, MORA, MUNDO, MENEGHETTI, MARZO, ROSSANTINI, TESTA, DRAGO, TANCREDI, COLUCCI, MICHELI, BRUNI, DE CARLI, RAVASIO, DEL MESE, PILLITTERI, ORSINI GIANFRANCO, FALCIER, CALDORO, DELL'ANDRO, RUBINO, NUCCI MAURO, BONFIGLIO, FORNASARI, ORSENIGO, MARIANETTI, PUJIA, MEROLLI, PUMILIA, BECCHETTI, QUATTRONE, QUIETI, RABINO, COLZI, CONTE CARMELO, ARMATO, SEPPIA, PERONE, ARTIOLI, DI DONATO, STERPA, MALVESTIO, ZOPPI, SCAIOLA, MENSORIO, MANNINO CALOGERO, PAGANELLI, PATRIA, ROSSI di MONTELERA, PASQUALIN, MANFREDI, SENALDI, ARMELLIN, BIANCHI, LATTANZIO, COLONI, CARRUS, CARLOTTO, CARIA, D'ACQUISTO, CAFARELLI, PICANO, BRICCOLA, RADI, GENOVA, PERUGINI, ZAMPIERI, MENEGHETTI, RINALDI, RICHI, CRISTOFORI, AMADEI, TESINI, LOMBARDO, TEDESCHI
"Introduced March 15, 1984"
Urgent and extraordinary interventions aimed at ensuring the survival, in 1984 and in any case within 12 months, of at least three million people endangered by hunger, malnutrition and underdevelopment in the regions of the developing countries with the highest mortality.
Honourable colleagues! - The stern warning and the fervent appeal of Sandro Pertini and of Pope John Paul II still echo in our country and throughout the world: "...and while billions are spent to build these instruments of death, 40,000 children die of hunger every day, 40,000 children. The death of these innocents is a burden on the conscience of every statesman, therefore also on my conscience [...] Those billions that are squandered to build instruments of death which, if used, would represent the end of the human race, should be used to feed those who are dying of hunger in the world at this very moment" (Sandro Pertini, December 31, 1983); "Our Lord, you almighty have created all things in your name, you have given food and drink to men as nourishment, behold with the eyes of the infant the men who die of hunger while huge sums of money are spent on armaments, behold the unspeakable grief of the parents who witness the agony of their children, who implore that bread which they do not have, and which could be procured with but a tiny part of the sums spent to build sophisticated means of destruction which make the clouds over the future of humanity more and more threatening..." (John Paul II, December 25, 1983).
Both appeals were explicit requests to stop deploring world hunger, to stop paying hypocritical homage to the victims of this extermination, to stop pursuing the insane policy of sacrificing dozens of millions of beings born for life every day on the altar of a remote development, without intervening at once, without mobilizing the resources, the energies and the possibilities of the rich and developed world in order to effectively assert the right to life.
The two appeals also represented the acknowledgement of the failure of three years of development policy which was meant to defeat hunger. But there has been no development, while the area affected by hunger has tremendously expanded over the last years. Even our country's consistent allocations for public development aid - 7,218 billion from 1981 to 1984 - could not have yielded a different result, considering the negative context of the international co-operation policy, and they have on the contrary boosted waste and misuse.
It was therefore necessary to place the survival of those who are dying of hunger on the political agenda as a priority, as an immediate problem, thus providing the necessary step to ensure the passage from a theoretic criticism of development policy to an effective policy for life and development, and for the reorganization of the aid system. This could enable to overcome the false alternative between emergency and development, between short and long time requirements.
The answer to the emergency of mass extermination, the singling out of the priorities connected to the needs of the exhausted and hungry multitudes, represent the sole objectives and the sole criteria on the basis of which to carry out a transformation of the aid system and the separation from the interests which burden public development aid today.
In order to achieve this, it was necessary to clearly identify the concrete objectives to be achieved, the period by which to achieve them, the suitable political and administrative means to override bureaucratic obstacles, and the resources in order not to waste such an ambitious project.
We believe that with the present parliamentary bill, which assimilates, in terms of methods and objectives, the popular initiative project endorsed by 3,500 mayors of Italy belonging to all political parties, we have clearly indicated the goals, the means, the methods and the resources to achieve extraordinary, integrated and multisectorial interventions, structured on the basis of alimentary strategies, sanitary plans and measures, programs for the creation of the infrastructures and services necessary to satisfy the fundamental, primary needs of the populations that are endangered by hunger in the regions with the highest mortality. "Such interventions" - states article 1 of the parliamentary bill - "will represent the basis for a new development policy with the developing countries which, aiming chiefly at the reduction of the morality rates and at an improvement of life conditions, can ensure the foundations for an effective participation of the beneficiary populations to a medium-and-long-term process of economic and social development".
The objective of the bill - ensuring the survival of al least three million people endangered by hunger - deserves a more attentive analysis, as it could strike some as oversimplified. The exact definition of this goal, which probably represents the bill's main new element, on the contrary represents the legislative synthesis of a scientific theory which is adopted by all major international organizations operating in the field of co-operation. The failure of traditional development strategies has lead to a critical reconsideration of the methods adopted in the past and to the identification of a new "index", capable of effectively gauging the results of interventions in developing countries.
James P. Grant, director of Unicef, and John E. Rodhe of the "Management Sciences for Health Consulting Group" write that "for too long we have measured the success of our efforts for development on the basis of the evolution of the Gross National Product. We should insist on using real parameters of the quality of life, such as the QPV index - physical quality of life index - which takes into account infant mortality, life expectancy and literacy in a combined manner. This would enable a better distribution of development aid". The same index was exhaustively explained by Morris O. Morris in "Measuring the condition of the world's poor: the Physical Quality of Life Index".
Therefore, making the safety of a given number of human beings into the core of the intervention provided by the present bill responds to the need to raise of the aforementioned index as a priority. Albeit with predictable approximations, this result can be measured with a consistent reduction of mortality and therefore, in relation to the population concerned by the intervention, with the number of people rescued from death.
As a consequence, this method defines the mandatory conditions which should qualify and characterize the action of the Government and of those who will take care of preparing the plans. According to the articles contained in the parliamentary bill, the action should be concentrated on specific areas "chosen among those with the highest mortality and inhabited by the poorest populations", and especially on "rural and border areas". Such action should not only ensure the funding of alimentary and infrastructure interventions, but above all should guarantee their effective implementation. It will be necessary not only to ship the consumables, compatibly with the needs and the habits of the populations concerned, but also stock them and distribute them. Similar considerations apply to the sanitary measures and to the measures relative to the supply of drinkable water. All this will necessarily imply the use of means and the realization of the first infrastructures to carry out the intervention. The list of top-priority activities and interventions contained in the parliamentary bill includes no new element except the acknowledgment that any strategy, in order to be successful, should tackle all the problems that regard elementary life conditions, and not simply tackle some of them separately. The definition "integrated and multisectorial plans" is sufficiently explicit, for this purpose, because it refers to well-known surveys and researches among the operators of the field.
The parliamentary bill deliberately avoids analysing the problem of the coordination between the emergency action and the so-called development policy, except to attribute all responsibilities for the co-operation activities concerning the regions in which the intervention will be concentrated to the High Commissioner. It would be purposeless to specify it at this stage, even if it is obvious that the intervention in given regions will enable to reorganize co-operation expenditure, identifying the priorities and the compatibility of medium-and-long-term programs.
First-hand experience and the progress of the intervention will urge the subsequent legislative or administrative which should become necessary, as already occurred during the operations of environmental protection following natural disasters on our territory.
In introducing this parliamentary bill in Parliament, which has received the support and the signature of members of Parliament of so many different political forces, we mean to draw the attention of the Italian parliamentarians on the major political and moral responsibility they have in making the logic and the values of life triumph over those of indifference, selfishness, war and death.
The present bill prepares the means for the achievement of extraordinary interventions aimed at ensuring, in 1984 and in any case within 12 months as from the coming into effect of this bill, the survival of at least three million people endangered by hunger, malnutrition and underdevelopment in the regions of the developing countries with the highest mortality. Such interventions will be concentrated on circumscribed regions, selected on the basis of criteria of the present bill.
The objectives listed in the present article will be pursued by means of integrated and multisectorial interventions, structured on the basis of alimentary strategies, sanitary plans and measures, programs for the accomplishment of the infrastructures and services which are indispensable to satisfy the fundamental needs, in conformity with the guidelines and conditions contained in the present bill.
Such intervention will represent the basis for a new development policy with the developing countries which, targeting chiefly the reduction of the morality rates and the improvememt of life conditions, can ensure the foundations for an effective participation of the beneficiary populations to a medium-and-long-term progress of economic and social development.
For the achievement of the above mentioned objectives, a High Commissioner for extraordinary interventions against world hunger is appointed at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The High Commissioner is appointed within 7 days of the coming into effect of this bill by means of a decree of the President of the Republic, on the proposal of the Prime Minister.
The High Commissioner, after having consulted with the parliamentary advisory committees for extraordinary interventions against mass starvation (see article 3), notwithstanding the existing provisions on national accounting in conformity with the following article 6, assumes all initiatives and adopts all necessary provisions for the execution of the integrated intervention programs, in conformity with the conditions and the guidelines contained in the present bill. The High Commissioner is assisted in the exercise of his functions by civilian governmental employees with a status not inferior to general executive and ambassador, and by general officials such as vice commissioners, appointed on designation of the High Commissioner, by means of a decree of the Prime Minister. For the purposes listed in the present bill, the High Commissioner may perform all the duties belonging to the single ministers. The High Commissioner may conclude co-operation agreements with the U.N. system for the achievement of the objectives of the present bill. In agreement with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he may also directly negotiate agreements with the recipient countries on all matters concerning the implementation of the intervention plans. In particular, the High Commissioner is responsible for the programs and for the use of the funds relative to the extraordinary and alimentary interventions decided or scheduled for 1984, in conformity with bill n. 38 of 9 February 1979 and of bill n. 7 of 3 January 1981, and generally for all co-operation activities with the countries chosen on the basis of letter "a") of the following article 4. The accomplishment of the scheduled works are ensured by ordinances issued by the High Commissioner in which he indicates by name the personnel chosen among the civilian and military staff of the government, of the local agencies, of the public agencies (including economic ones), as well as experts (also foreign) who do not belong to the Administration, who can be given specific functions for the performance of specific tasks.
Every six months, the High Commissioner submits a detailed report on the activity and on the interventions carried out (including financial ones) to the Presidents of the Chamber and of the Senate and to the President of the parliamentary advisory committees for extraordinary interventions against mass starvation (see article 3).
The general ordinances adopted by the High Commissioner will be published on the "Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica". In any case, all ordinances are communicated to the President of the committees created in conformity with article 3 of the present bill. The functions attributed to the High Commissioner in conformity with the previous commas cease December 31, 1985.
("Parliamentary advisory committees for extraordinary interventions against mass starvation").
The parliamentary advisory committees for extraordinary interventions against mass starvation, appointed by each Chamber according to its own regulations, may meet jointly with the purpose of providing indications on the acts of the High Commissioner for extraordinary interventions against mass extermination, and to express opinions upon the request of the High Commissioner himself.
The joint meetings of the committees are presided by one of the members appointed jointly by the Presidents of the Chambers.
("Guidelines and conditions of intervention")
For the accomplishment of the extraordinary interventions, the High Commissioner, after having consulted with the committees (see above article) sees to:
"a") the selection, within 30 days of the coming into effect of the present bill, of the regions of the developing countries in which to concentrate the first interventions, chosen among those with the highest mortality and inhabited by the poorest populations. During the first stage of the implementation of the present bill, the regions will be selected in Africa and especially in rural and border areas;
"b") the preparation, within 60 days from the deadline established by previous letter "a"), in co-operation with the Ministries the intervention of which should prove necessary, with specialized international nongovernmental and governmental organizations, of the first extraordinary integrated and multisectorial feasibility plans aimed at ensuring the survival of those who risk death due to hunger, malnutrition and underdevelopment, and the organization of the first infrastructures and services necessary to satisfy the primary needs, thus launching a policy of effective development in the regions concerned by the intervention.
Throughout the preparation of the first feasibility plans, the representatives of the concerned developing countries as well as of the other donor countries interested in competing for the execution of the interventions, will work jointly. For the achievement of the integrated and multisectorial plans listed in letter "b") of the first comma of the present article, the High Commissioner, after having consulted with the committees (see article 3 of the present bill), may see to:
1) the constitution and activation, in the chosen regions, by previous agreement with the Governments concerned, of extraordinary intervention units. Such units are set up with means and personnel belonging to the military and civilian governmental Administration, to the administration of the regions, of the local agencies, of the voluntary associations and in any case with personnel (including local personnel) and with means necessary for the implementation of the integrated plans. Such units, by previous agreement with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, may be assigned as United Nations Force;
2) the allocation of financial resources to international and national organizations that carry out specific integrated extraordinary programs;
3) the support and the use of the base communities and of the social groups of the countries designated under point "a") of the present article for the accomplishment of local projects;
4) the purchase, shipping, storage and distribution, directly or through international agencies, of commodities and foodstuff, adequate to satisfy the alimentary needs and habits of the populations concerned;
5) the purchase, use and shipping of transportation means and generally of the equipment necessary for the integrated interventions;
6) the activation of structures for the provision of drinkable water and for the supply of sanitary facilities for the rural communities;
7) the implementation of sanitary plans and measures for the battle against tropical diseases and their vectors;
8) the first initiatives for the increase of the agricultural production necessary to survival, for the improvement of the facilities for the transformation of agricultural products, the achievement of irrigation, leveling, drainage and reduced-scale
9) the installation of facilities for the exploitation of renewable and reduced-cost energies;
10) the planning and achievment of the communication means necessary for the implementation of the integrated intervention;
11) the organization of programs for the training of local personnel;
12) the organization of communication and information programs capable of involving and informing the populations of the recipient countries and the international public opinion on the effects of the action undertaken.
Such interventions will represent basic and pioneering elements for medium-and-long term development programs.
For the purposes listed in the present bill, the High Commissioner may hire Italian and foreign personnel within the limits prescribed by the single programs and with the same salary as the personnel of international organizations based in Italy.
Such personnel will be hired with forward contracts notwithstanding the current legislation on public employment.
The salary of the local personnel used in the intervention areas is decided on the basis of the retributions in force in the country in which the personnel is hired. Similarly, the High Commissioner may decide the temporarily transfer of qualified personnel, both Italian and foreign, of international organizations which Italy is a member of.
Th personnel designated under comma 6 of article 2 may be given retributions for overtime work actually performed for no more than 80 monthly hours each. In conditions of particular need, the hours of overtime work may be increased by means of an ordinance of the Prime Minister, on the proposal of the High Commissioner.
("Appropriations, accounting autonomy, expenditure procedures")
For the purposes listed in the present bill, a Fund is established having an autonomous administration and off balance sheet, in conformity with article 9 of bill n. 1041 of November 25, 1971, called "Fund for extraordinary interventions against mass starvation".
The Fund is managed by the High Commissioner.
The Fund is sustained by a first appropriation of L.4000 billion to be debited on the financial years 1984 and 1985, of which L.1,200 billion of which to be entered in a special item of the estimate of expenditure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the financial year 1984.
The Fund is also sustained by contributions, donations, legacies and bequests in all currencies, duly accepted, on the part of national and international organizations as well as by private individuals. The sums and the assets assigned by public and private subjects and the relative contracts of transfer are free of any taxation. The amount of the contributions may be deducted from the taxable income as far as IRPEF and IRPEG are concerned, within the limit of L.5 million, provided payment is made directly to the Fund, which issues a special certificate to enclose to the income tax return.
The Fund's assets are deposited on a special accounting established at the Provincial State Treasury of Rome registered under the name of the High Commissioner for the battle against mass starvation. The appropriation for the financial year 1984, designated under the previous comma three, is deposited by means of an order of payment to be issued within 7 days of the coming into effect of the present bill. The appropriation for the financial year 1985 is paid to the special accountancy by January 31, 1985. Every month the provincial treasury section will submit the account of the funds provided by article 591 of the general public accountancy regulations passed with royal decree n. 827 of May 23, 1924.
For the purposes designated under comma five of article 2 of the present bill, the Fund's special accounting will receive the funds relative to the extraordinary and alimentary interventions already planned and scheduled in conformity with bill n. 38 of February 9, 1979 and bill n. 7 of January 3, 1981.
The financial statement drawn up by the High Commissioner on December 31 of each year and at the closing of the management are subject to the provisions contained in articles 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12 and 13 of the regulations for the accountancy and control of off balance sheet managements authorized by special laws in conformity with article 9 of bill n. 1041 of November 25, 1971 passed with a decree of the President of the Republic n. 689 of July 11, 1977.
For the achievement of his goals, the High Commissioner may, by means of a private negotiation, stipulate agreements or contracts with administrations, universities, agencies, private individuals and international organizations and authorize contract works.
No authorization, no previous or or subsequent opinion on the contracts, agreements and contracts stipulated are required for the management of the Fund.
The L. 4,000 billion cost resulting from the implementation of the present bill, L.1,200 billion of which for the financial year 1984 and 2,800 billion of which for the financial year 1985, is covered:
"a") in the amount of L. 800 billion for the financial year 1984 by means of a L. 350 billion reduction for the same financial year of item n. 4260 of the estimate of expenditure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a L. 450 billion reduction of item n.8173 of the estimate of expenditure of the Ministry of Treasury, both in terms of commissions and of cash; in the amount of L. 1,000 billion for the financial year 1985 by means of a reduction for that same financial year of the appropriations resulting from the estimate for the same items contained in the estimate of the anticipatory account for 1984-1986;
"b") in the amount of L. 600 billion, L.300 billion of which for the financial year 1984 and L.300 billion of which for the accounting period 1985, by means of an increase for 12 months as from the coming into effect of the present bill, of the tariffs for the sale to the public of tobacco contained in tables "A, B, C, D" and "E" attached to bill n. 825 of July 13, 1965 and subsequent modifications and integrations in the proportion of L. 5,000/kilogram for tariffs equivalent or inferior to L. 65,000/kilogram before the coming into effect of the present bill, and in the proportion of L.10,000/kilogram for tariffs over L. 65,000/kilogram before the coming into effect of the present bill.
While the price per kilogram asked by the supplier and the premium owing to the retailer remain the same, and while the value-added tax rate remains 20 percent, the sales tax increases in the proportion corresponding to the difference between the new tariff price and the amount of the value-added tax;
"c") in the amount of L. 100 billion for the financial year 1985 by means of a 200 percent and 400 percent increase, as from January 1, 1985, of licence taxes as listed respectively under numbers 25-1), 26, 31 and 34 and numbers 30 "a") and "b"), 32, 33 and 35 of the tariff attached to the decree of the President of the Republic n. 641 and subsequent integrations and modifications, of 26 October 1972:
"d") in the amount of L. 100 and L.200 billion respectively for the financial years 1984 and 1985 by means of corresponding reductions for the same financial years of item n. 4071 of the estimate of expenditure of the Ministry of Defence;
"e") in the amount of L. 1,200 billion for financial year 1985 by means of the corresponding reduction of the charges for interests on the public debt for the same financial year resulting from the advance payment in May of half of the part payment of the tax on the income of physical persons, of the tax on the income of juridical persons and of the local tax on income provided by bill n. 97 and subsequent modifications of March 23, 1977 and by decree-law n.939 of December 23, 1977 converted into law, with modifications, by bill n. 38 of February 23, 1978, according to the provisions of the following article.
("Advance of the part payment")
Starting from January 1, 1985, the part payment provided by bill n. 97 of March 23, 1977 and subsequent modifications and by decree-law n. 936 of December 23, 1977 with modifications converted into law and bill n. 38 of February 23, 1978, must be paid in the month of May and in the month of November, in two parts, each corresponding to 46 percent of the total sum paid for the previous tax period.
The subjects of the income tax of the juridical persons whose financial year or management period does not correspond to the calendar year should make the payment in the fifth and in the eleventh month of the same financial year or period.
The payment should not be made if the amount is inferior to L. 20,000 as far as the local income tax and the income tax of juridical persons are concerned, and to L. 50,000 as far as the income tax of physical persons is concerned.
The Ministry of Treasury is authorized to enter the necessary variations in the balance sheet, creating the item listed in article 6 within 7 days of the coming into effect of the present bill. Such item may be used even before the registration of the relative act of institution.
The present bill takes effect the day following its publication on "La Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica".
Members and contributors 2013
|Giuseppe R. Roma||590 €|
|Salvatore P. Capistrello||200 €|
|Giancarlo B. Torino||30 €|
|Marco B. Merano||20 €|
|Davide B. Prato||50 €|
|Giuseppe P. Grottammare||50 €|
|Maurizio T. Roma||1.000 €|
|Rosa A. Firenze||590 €|
|Giuliano G. Sondrio||590 €|
|Sergio Pasquale R. Cremona||500 €|
|Total SUM||326.746 €|
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