An Open Letter to the delegates of the Forty-eighth session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND)


Human Rights Watch

In a year when the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is chair of the governing body of the UN’s Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), we write to express concern about U.S. efforts to force a UNODC retreat from support of syringe exchange and other measures proven to contain the spread of HIV among drug users. Injection drug use accounts for the majority of HIV infections in dozens of countries in Asia and the former Soviet Union, including Russia, China, all of Central Asia, and much of Southeast Asia. In most countries outside Africa, the largest number of new infections now occurs among injection drug users. As UNODC director Antonio Maria Costa noted at the July 2004 International AIDS Conference, effective responses to injection driven AIDS epidemics require expanded HIV prevention, including syringe exchange, rather than policies that accelerate HIV infections through widespread and indiscriminate imprisonment.

Unfortunately, recent events suggest that UNODC—under pressure from the United States—is being asked to withdraw support from proven HIV prevention strategies at precisely the moment when increased commitment to measures such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution treatment is needed. It is particularly alarming that the silencing of UNODC is occurring in a year when the agency is chair of UNAIDS’ Committee of Co-sponsoring Organizations and in a year when HIV prevention is a focus of thematic debate at the 48th meeting of the CND. Among the events that have particularly heightened our concern are:

  • Mr. Costa, who last year expressed support for positive changes in the Russian criminal code, expansion of syringe exchange in countries facing injection driven epidemics and other measures to reduce drug-related harm, has apparently been rebuked by the U.S. State Department. Following a meeting with Robert Charles, U.S. Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Mr. Costa pledged to review all UNODC electronic and printed documents for references to “harm reduction” and to be “even more vigilant in the future.”

  • In Southeast Asia, UNODC has suspended a program that sought reduce drug users’ vulnerability to HIV prevention through approaches that emphasized public health and drug users’ human rights, rather than punishment.

  • Even syringe exchange, affirmed as an effective and essential part of HIV prevention by UNAIDS, WHO, and UN member nations, has become politically unpalatable. A November e-mail from a senior UNODC staff member asked junior staff to “to ensure that references to harm reduction and needle/syringe exchange are avoided in UNODC documents, publications and statements.”

    We recognize that UNODC is dependent on contributions from donor nations, and that the U.S. is the single largest donor to UN drug control. At the same time, the lives of hundreds of thousands depend on sound, scientific approaches to HIV prevention. Numerous studies, including U.S. government studies, have found that strategies such as syringe exchange and methadone maintenance demonstrably diminish HIV transmission and other health risks. The fact that U.S. delegates declare the evidence in support of syringe exchange “unconvincing,” as they did in last year’s CND session, should not be allowed to determine the course of the UN drug control and HIV prevention efforts, which are inextricably and essentially linked. Nor should UNODC—a co-sponsor of UNAIDS, and an agency with an essential role to play in the course of the HIV epidemic—be asked to refrain from public statements about needle exchange simply because they do not fall within the realm of what the U.S. deems acceptable.

    Strategies that attempt solely to achieve abstinence from drug use do not constitute an acceptable alternative to programs, such as syringe exchange, that help active drug users protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. Experience has shown that “zero tolerance” drug control efforts can have the effect of driving injection drug users underground and away from drug treatment and other health services. This is particularly true where, as in many countries, counter-narcotics efforts lead to false arrest, beatings and extortion by police, prolonged detention without trial, forced drug treatment, disproportionate incarceration in cruel conditions and, in some cases, extrajudicial execution. Programs such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution, by contrast, both prevent HIV infection and can provide a bridge to other health services. Restricting these programs is a blatant infringement of drug users’ human right to health.

    As you gather this year to debate HIV/AIDS prevention and drug abuse, we respectfully urge you to support syringe exchange, opiate substitution treatment and other harm reduction approaches demonstrated to reduce HIV risk; to affirm the human rights of drug users to health and health services; and to reject efforts to overrule science and tie the hands of those working on the front lines. No less than the future of the HIV epidemic is at stake.

    cc: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
    World Health Organization
    Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
    International Narcotics Control Board


    The following organizations and individuals have signed this letter as of March 1, 2005:

    Organizations by region
    Asia
    AIZHIXING Institute of Health Education, Beijing, China

    Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Asia Pacific Rainbow, New Delhi, India

    Australian Drug Foundation, Melbourne, Australia

    Australian Injecting and Illicit Drug Users League, Darlinghurst, Australia

    Blue Diamond Society, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia and Yangon, Myanmar

    The Centre for Harm Reduction, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research & Public Health, Melbourne, Australia

    Community Health, Rehabilitation, Education & Awareness (CREA), Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Drug Action Committee of the City of Greater Geelong, Victoria, Australia

    Family Drug Support, Willoughby, Australia

    Health and Development Networks (HDN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

    ILGLAW – Asia, New Delhi, India

    Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, New Delhi, India

    Malaysian AIDS Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Malaysian Harm Reduction Working Group, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Northern Sydney Central Coast Health, Sydney, Australia

    Pinoy Plus Association, Manila, Philippines

    RISE, Peshawar, Pakistan

    Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group (TTAG), Bangkok, Thailand

    Thai Drug Users' Network (TDN), Bangkok, Thailand

    Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Melbourne, Australia

    VIVAIDS Inc., Fitzroy, Australia

    WartaAIDS, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Western Australian Substance Users Association, Bunbury, Australia

    Yayasan Spiritia, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Africa

    AfriCASO: African Council of Aids Service Organization, Dakar, Senegal

    Kenya AIDS NGOs Consortium (KANCO), Nairobi, Kenya

    Sheryl’s Orphans Children Home, Nairobi, Kenya

    UNDP/Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Europe/Central Asia

    Abraço—Associação de Apoio a Pessoas Infectadas e Afectadas pelo VIH /SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal

    Act Up—Paris, Paris, France

    Action Against AIDS Germany, Tubingen, Germany

    Actions Traitements, Paris, France

    AGIHAS (PLWHA Support group), Riga, Latvia

    AIDES NGO, Pantin Cedex, France

    AIDS Action Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    AIDS Foundation East-West (AFEW), Moscow, Russia

    Aids-Hilfe Bonn e. V., Bonn, Germany

    AKZEPT E.V.—Bundesverband für akzeptierende Drogenarbeit und humane Drogenpolitik, Berlin, Germany

    Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, Netherlands

    A.N.O., Prague, Czech Republic

    Associazione Mastropietro & Co., Turin, Italy

    Associazione Nazionale Italiana Lotta AIDS (A.L.A.), Milano, Italy

    Blupoint Drug Counselling Centre, Budapest, Hungary

    Bremen Institute for Drug Research, Bremen, Germany

    CA Odyseus, Bratislava, Slovakia

    Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Women and Gender (ZFG), Oldenburg, Germany

    Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network, Vilnius, Lithuania

    The Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College, United Kingdom

    Charitable Foundation "Rehabilitation Center of Drug Addicts "Virtus", Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

    The Chrysalis Drug Project, Hertford, United Kingdom

    Coalition on Vulnerable Population "I Can Live", Vilnius, Lithuania

    Community Organization of People Living with HIV & AIDS, Moscow, Russia

    Convictus Eesti, Tallinn, Estonia

    Cranstoun Drug Services, London, United Kingdom

    DIA+LOGS NGO, Support centre for those affected by HIV/AIDS, Riga, Latvia

    Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Suchtmedizin (vorm DGDS) e.V., Hamburg, Germany

    DroBeL - Drogenberatung Lehrte e. V., Lehrte, Germany

    Drogenberatung e.V., Bielefeld, Germany

    Drogprevenciós Alapítvány, Budapest, Hungary

    Dublin AIDS Alliance Ltd., Dublin, Ireland

    Equal to Equal, Almaty, Kazakhstan

    Estima Associação, Leiria, Portugal

    Északi Támpont Egyesület, Budapest, Hungary

    European AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium

    European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies (ENCOD), Antwerp, Belgium

    European Commission, Coordination of Anti-drugs Policy, Directorate-General Justice,

    Freedom and Security, Brussels, Belgium

    Evangelisches Stadtjugendpfarramt Gera, Gera, Germany

    Förderverein interdisziplinärer Sucht- und Drogen-forschung (FISD) e.V., Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Sucht-und drogen-forschung – ZIS, Hamburg, Germany

    Freundes- und Förderkreis Suchtkrankenhilfe e.V., Wuppertal, Germany

    GAT - Grupo Português de Activistas sobre Tratamentos de VIH/SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal

    George House Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

    Grazia Zuffa, Fuoriluogo/Il Manifesto, Rome, Italy

    Greater Glasgow Drug Action Team, Glasgow, Scotland

    Grup Igia, Barcelona, Spain

    Grupo de Trabajo sobre Tratamientos del VIH (gTt), Barcelona, Spain

    Health and Social Development Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Health Education Association NGO, Yerevan, Armenia

    Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, Warsaw, Poland

    Hemp Seed Association, Budapest, Hungary

    HIV Prevention Programme at Kekava, Riga, Latria

    Hope-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Indro e.V., Münster, Germany

    Initiative for Health Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria

    The Initiative of Drug Users' Mutual Support, Vilnius, Lithuania

    The Institute for Criminal Policy Research (ICPR), School of Law, King's College, London, United Kingdom

    Institut für Sozialpädagogik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    The International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW), London, United Kingdom

    International Harm Reduction Association, London, United Kingdom Irish Penal Reform Trust, Dublin, Ireland

    Itaca Europe, Rome, Italy

    Italian League for the fight against AIDS - Center for Human Rights and Public Health (LILA CEDIUS ONLUS), Milan, Italy

    JES e.V., Bielefeld and Bremen, Germany

    John Mordaunt Trust, London, United Kingdom

    Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Malopolskie Stowarzyszenie PROBACJA (PROBACJA Association), Krakow, Poland

    MARATON, Warsaw, Poland

    Methadone Alliance, London, United Kingdom

    MODUS VIVENDI, Prévention du sida et réduction des risques pour usagers de drogues, Brussels, Belgium

    Monar Krakow Drugs Project, Krakow, Poland MONAR, Pulawy, Poland

    National AIDS Trust, London, United Kingdom

    Netherlands Drug Policy Foundation (SDB), Haarlem, Netherlands

    NGO TRUST, Skopje, Macedonia

    Osservatorio Italiano sull'Azione Globale contro l'AIDS, Rome, Italy

    PASSAGE, Skopje, Macedonia

    Plymouth Drug and Alcohol Action Team, Plymouth, United Kingdom Quest for Quality, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    REFORM, Drug Policy Interest Group, Essex, United Kingdom

    RFSU, The Swedish Association for Sexuality Education, Stockholm, Sweden

    Romanian Association against AIDS (ARAS), Bucharest, Romania

    Romanian Harm Reduction Network (RHRN), Bucharest, Romania

    Russian Harm Reduction Network, Moscow, Russia

    SANANIM, Prague, Czech Republic

    Sensoa (Flemish Centre for Expertise and Services on Sexual Health and HIV), Antwerp, Belgium

    SIDACTION – International Programs, Paris, France

    SIDA STUDI, Barcelona, Spain

    SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland

    Social AIDS Committee, Warsaw, Poland

    SOMA – Associação Portuguesa Anti-proibicionista, Lisbon, Portugal

    Steunpunt Druggebruikers, Antwerp, Belgium

    T3E [UK] Ltd., London, United Kingdom

    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Bristol, United Kingdom

    Transnational Institute (TNI) Drug and Democracy Programme, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Tver AIDS Center, Tver, Russia

    Tver Center of Drugs Addiction Treatment, Tver, Russia

    United Kingdom Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom

    Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) - New Ways, Istanbul, Turkey

    World AIDS Campaign, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung – ZFG, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

    Zentrum Suchtmedizin Klinikum Wahrendorff, Sehnde, Germany

    Latin America

    Argentinean Harm Reduction Association (ARDA), Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Argentinean Harm Reduction Network (REDARD), Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Asociación Civil “Convivencia” de Personas Viviendo y Conviviendo con VIH/SIDA, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Brazilian Drug Users Network, Recife, Brazil

    Fundación para Estudio e Investigación de la Mujer. Buenos Aires, Argentina

    HUMANAR, Huritaba, Brazil

    Intercambios Asociación Civil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Women Aids Caucus, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    LACCASO - Latin American and Caribbean Council of AIDS Service Organizations, Caracas, Venezuela

    Mujer y Salud en Uruguay (MYSU), Montevideo, Uruguay

    ONG INTERPARES, Parana Entre Rios, Argentina

    Parana Drug Users Network, Curitiba, Brazil

    Programa Alter-Acciones, El Abrojo – Instituto de Educación Popular, Montevideo, Uruguay

    REDUC, Brazilian Harm Reduction Network, São Paulo, Brazil

    RELARD, Latin American Harm Reduction Network, Curitiba, Brazil

    Middle East/North Africa

    Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran, Iran

    The Moroccan Association for the Fight Against AIDS, Marrakesh, Morocco

    Persepolis Harm Reduction NGO, Tehran, Iran

    Persia+, UNDP GIPA Programme, Tehran, Iran

    North America

    Access Works! Harm Reduction Services, Minneapolis, MN, USA

    Act Up—East Bay, Oakland, CA, USA

    Advocates for Recovery Through Medicine, Connecticut Chapter, New London, CT, USA

    After Hours Project, Inc., Brooklyn, NY, USA

    AIDS Foundation of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

    AIDS Project Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    AIDS Treatment Data Network, New York, NY, USA

    American Academy of HIV Medicine, Washington DC, USA

    American Foundation for AIDS Research, Washington DC, USA

    ARC International, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Canadian Harm Reduction Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Takoma Park, MD, USA

    Center for Human Rights and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

    CHAMP (Community HIV/AIDS Mobilization Project), New York, NY, USA

    Chicago Recovery Alliance, Chicago, IL, USA

    CitiWide Harm Reduction, Bronx, NY, USA

    Drug Overdose Prevention & Education Project, San Francisco, CA, USA

    DrugSense, Irvine, CA, USA

    Exponents, New York, NY, USA

    Foundation for Integrative AIDS Research (FIAR), Brooklyn, NY, USA

    Gay Men's Health Crisis, New York, NY, USA

    Global AIDS Alliance, Washington DC, USA

    Harm Reduction Coalition, New York, NY, USA

    Harm Reduction Project, Denver and Salt Lake City, UT, USA

    Health GAP (Global Access Project), New York, NY, USA

    HIV Advocacy Council of Oregon and SW Washington, Portland, OR, USA

    HIV Resource Center, Roseburg Risk Reduction, Roseburg, OR, USA

    Housing Works, Inc., New York, NY, USA

    Human Rights Watch, New York, NY, USA

    International Antiprohibitionist League, New York, NY, USA and Rome, Italy

    International Center for Advancement of Addiction Treatment, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute of Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY, USA

    International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO), Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    International Foundation for Alternative Research in AIDS (IFARA), Portland, OR, USA

    International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA

    International Women's Health Coalition, New York, NY, USA

    Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center, New York, NY, USA

    Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Public Health and Policy Research, Bronx, NY, USA

    NAMA-Norcal, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

    National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA), Silver Spring, MD, USA

    National Association for Victims of Transfusion-Acquired AIDS, Bethesda, MD, USA

    The New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

    Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA

    Physicians for Human Rights, Washington, DC, USA

    Positive Health Project, Inc., New York, NY, USA

    Prevention Point Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    TAG, Treatment Action Group, New York, NY, USA

    Unified Networkers of Drug Users Nationally, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

    Individual Signatories

    Vittorio Agnoletto, Scientific Mgr of LILA CEDIUS, Member of the European Parliament, GUE/NGL Group, Italy

    Waheed Ahmad, Advocate High Court, Legal Secretary: World Asian Workers Organisation, Lahore, Pakistan

    Joan Anderson, HIV/AIDS community Consultant and volunteer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Guillermo R. Aureano, Ph.D., Chercheur associé, Groupe d'étude et de recherche sur la sécurité internationale (GERSI), Département de science politique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

    Brambillaschi Barbara, L.I.L.A. - Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro l'AIDS-sede di Como, Italy

    Trude Bennett, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Dennis Berg, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA

    Marie-Andrée Bertrand, Professor emeritus, University of Montreal, Criminology, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

    Suzanne Bessoir, Harm Reduction Specialist, AIDS Service Center NYC, New York, NY, USA

    Calum Blair, Harm Reduction worker, SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland

    Simon Boerboom, Psychiatrist, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Beth M. Bouloukos, Ithaca, New York, NY, USA

    Scott Burris, James E. Beasley Professor of Law, Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    Ryan Borgen, Student Global AIDS Campaign, Northeastern University School of Law, Boston, MD, USA

    Jill Britton, London, United Kingdom

    Damon Brogan, Manager, VIVAIDS, Melbourne, Australia

    Benjamin Bynum, Fikelela AIDS Project, Cape Town, South Africa

    Vincenzo Caracciolo, Associazione P24 Lila Livorno, Livorno, Italy

    Craig Carmichael, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

    Paul Causey, HIV/AIDS Program Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand

    Jennifer Chapman, MPH, Project Manager/Research Coordinator, Center for Clinical, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    George K. Clarke, Volunteer CT Director, CMA, New London, CT, USA

    Shelley Cogger, Research Assistant, Post Release Experience of Prisoners in Queensland (PREP-Q), Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), University of Queensland, Australia

    Franco Corleone, Forum Droghe, Rome, Italy

    Melissa Dent, Community Development Worker, Melbourne, Australia

    Tamara Desiatov, Koondoola, Western Australia

    Kate Dickie, Annah Pickering, Managers, Auckland Branch of the New Zealand

    Prostitutes Collective, Auckland, New Zealand

    Dr. Gyaw Htet Doe, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Taunggyi Drug Treatment Hospital, Taunggyi, Myanmar

    Ms J Dowling, Auburn, NSW, Australia

    Andy Dudley, Addaction, Derby, United Kingdom

    Carolina Pecheny Durozier, Paris, France

    Brian R. Edlin, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA

    Maria Fotopoulou, Ph.D. student, Imperial College, University of London, London, United Kingdom

    Mayada Youssef Fox, staff member, HIV/AIDS Department, WHO HQ, Geneva, Switzerland

    Sandra Fox, former staff, Harm Reduction sector, Melbourne, Australia

    Jonathan Freedlander, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Liliana Gherman, MD, Program Director, Public Health Program, Soros Foundation, Chisinau, Moldova

    Cees Goos, honorary consultant Anton Proksch Institut, former WHO staff, Vienna, Austria

    Chris W. Green, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Heath Greville (individual support), Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia

    Patrick Griffiths, PhD candidate, Contemporary Globalisation and HIV/AIDS in Vietnam, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

    Revd Dr Ian T Guy, General Practitioner, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom

    Bianca L. Guzman, Ph.D., CHOICES Director of Research, La Puente, CA, USA

    Fiona Hale, International Network Manager, ICW, London, United Kingdom

    Jen Hall, Information and Referral (Duty) Worker, Inner South Community Health Service, Prahran, Australia

    Helena Hansen, MD-Ph.D. Candidate, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

    Paul Hardacre, Training Officer, Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Frank Harding, Ayer's Cliff, Quebec, Canada

    Andy Hart, Vendafit Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia

    Paul J. von Hartmann, Project P.E.A.C.E., Planet Ecology Advancing Conscious Economics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA

    Robert Heimer, Ph. D., Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS Yale University School of, New Haven, CT, USA

    Beatriz Acevedo Holguin, Researcher on International Drug Policy, Hull, United Kingdom

    Lital Hollander, Research Manager, ESMAN Medical Consulting, Milano, Italy

    Danny Holness, Peer Education Officer, RaveSafe, Victoria, Australia

    Daniel E. Hood, Ph.D., Department of Criminal Justice/Security Systems, State University of New York at Farmingdale, Farmingdale, New York, NY, USA

    Annabelle Horton, UN Office of Drugs and Crime, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Neil Hunt, Senior Research Associate, University of Kent; Honorary Research Fellow, Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College, London; Director, UK Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom

    Elena Jeffreys, Scarlet Alliance, Australias Sex Worker Association, Canberra Act, Australia

    McKinzie McClay Jernberg, Minneapolis, MN, USA

    Debbie Johnson, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom

    P. R. W. Kendall, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC, Provincial Health Officer, Ministry of Health Services, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    Joseph Kim, Young Drug Users Peer Education Officer, VIVAIDS (Victorian Drug User Organisation), Melbourne, Australia

    Dr Stuart A. Kinner, Lecturer, Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), Queensland, Australia

    Debbie Kocziban, Addaction, Plymouth Devon, United Kingdom

    Nicky Kupfer, Alcohol Tobacco and other drugs service, Sydney, Australia

    Heather La Faye LPN, Medicine cures sickness,all the world is medicine, what is the self?, Recovery Resource Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA

    Susana Lambrechts, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina

    Deb Lapthorne, Director of Public Health, Plymouth Primary Care Trust/ Plymouth City Council, Plymouth, United Kingdom

    Fiona Leibrick, Lecturer: Health Sciences (Alcohol & Other Drug Studies) / Registered Psychologist, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia

    Sarah Lippek, AIDS Center of Queens County, Long Island City, NY, USA

    Deirdre Love, Senior Health Promotion Specialist HIV Positive People, Health First, London, United Kingdom

    Wendy Loxley, Associate Professor, National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, West Australia

    Devon MacFarlane, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Catherine Mackenzie, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

    Jan Chrostek Maj MD, Rydygier's Hospital, Krakow, Poland

    Paolo La Marca, Project manager (Harm reduction & training), LILA CEDIUS (Italian league fight against AIDS), Milano, Italy

    David Martin, Program Medical Officer, Health Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Phyra M. McCandless, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Rachel McLean, MPH Candidate, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Belinda McNair, Senior Project Officer-City Drug Safety Plan, City of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

    Cristina Menoyo, Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Madrid. España

    Maria Luisa Milesi, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina

    Dr Peter Miller, Senior Clinical Research Worker. National Addiction Centre (Maudsley Hospital/Institute of Psychiatry). King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    PhDr. Michal Miovsky, Ph.D., Institute of psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

    Andrew Moss Ph.D, Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Marjorie "Mo" Mowlam, Kent, United Kingdom

    Sam Muller, Regional Field Coordinator, Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project, "An Australian Government Initiative", Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    Roshan das Nair, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, England

    Dr. Russell Newcombe, Senior Lecturer in Drug Use & Addiction, School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moore's University, Liverpool, England

    Dr Michael O'Dwyer, Senior Health Adviser, DFID South East Asia, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Patrick O'Gorman, Consultant with Asian Harm Reduction Network and European Expert with UNDP led BUMAD and SCAD programmes, Nottingham, United Kingdom

    James M. Oleske, MD, MPH, François-Xavier Bagnoud Professor of Pediatrics, Director, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, Untied States

    Hilgunn Olsen, SIRUS Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway

    Kim Pate, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies (CAEFS), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Mario Pecheny, Instituto Gino Germani, Universidad de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Jia Ping, Beijing Aizhixing institute of health education, China

    Dr.Hayley Pinto, Norfolk and Waveny Mental Health, Partnership NHS Trust, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom

    Robert Power PhD, Reader in Health & Social Sciences Research, Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research, Department of Primary Care & Population Sciences, Royal Free & University College Medical School, Mortimer Market, London, United Kingdom

    Dianne Proctor, Reproductive Health Activist, (Previously CEO of AHRA, now retired), Canberra, Australia

    Kenn Quayle, i2i Peer Support, Gibsons, British Columbia, Canada

    Pedro Ratis e Silva, DINAMO, São Paulo, Brazil

    Melissa Raven, Lecturer, Coordinator, Drugs and Public Health, Department of Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia

    Emran M. Razzaghi, M.D., M.P.H., Ass Professor of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2004-5 World Fellow, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

    Thomas Timon Reichl, Bonn, Germany

    Josiah D. Rich, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor of Medicine and Community Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

    Jane Richman, Substance Misuse Worker, United Kingdom

    Kay Roberts, Glasgow, United Kingdom

    Xavier Majó Roca, Programme on Drug Abuse, Department of Health. Autonomous, Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Catalonia-Spain

    Allan Rosenfield, MD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Rainer Rotthoff, Pelangi Communitry Foundation, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Cliff Seaward, drug worker, United Kingdom

    Gerard M. Schippers, Ph.D., Professor of Addictive Behaviors and Treatment Evaluation, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Susan G. Sherman, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Ram Singh Gurung, an Ex-drug user, Advocacy coordinator, Naya Goreto, Kathmandu Nepal

    Alfred Sommer, Dean and Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Dr Mónica Suárez Cardona, Madrid, Spain

    Brent Taylor, UNDUN, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

    Dr. Gerald Thomas, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian, Director Political Science and International Relations, Universidad de San Andres, Argentina

    Bruce G. Trigg, MD, Medical Director, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program, Department of Health, NM, USA

    Pervaiz Tufail, Program Manager, AMAL Human Development Network, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Azmi bin Uda, "Positive Muslim", Marang,Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Jamie Uhrig, Consultant in HIV Prevention and Care, Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Kenneth A. Vail, M.P.H, M.A., Tenderloin AIDS Resource Center, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Félix Vanderstricht, Aquadev NGO, Tools & Strategy Dpt., Brussels, Belgium

    Camila Vega, Consultant, Regional Cooperative Mechanism to Monitor and Execute the ACCORD Plan of Action, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand

    Miguel García Villanueva, Head of the Medical Services of the Prison of Pamplona, Spain

    David Vlahov, Ph.D., New York, NY, USA

    Jennifer Whittall, RhythmicPrinting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    Karen Willey, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, England

    Dr. Alex Wodak, Director, Alcohol and Drug Service, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Liron B. Wolff, LMSW, New York, NY, USA

    Yang Yang, MPH, Yale University of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA

    Yuanyin, The Central University for Nationalities, China

    Tomas Zabransky, M.D., Ph.D., Institute for Epidemiology, Public Health and Hygiene, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic